Muhammad of Ghur left his Indian dominions in the care of his trusted former slave, Qutb-ud-din Aibak. On Muhammad’s death, Qutb-ud-din severed his ties with Ghazni an9-. independently founded a new dynasty, generally referred to as the ‘mameluks’ or slave dynasty. The title is actually a misnomer as three dynasties ruled over Delhi during the period 1206 to 1290. The founders of these dynasties were Qutb-ud-din Aibak, ntutmish and Balban who did not descend from a common ancestor. Only the founders of these dynasties, and no other member, had been ~laves in their early career.
QUTB-UD-DIN AIBAK (1206-1210) Aibak received title of Sultan of Delhi from Ghiyas-ud-din Mahmud, nephew and successor of Muhammad of Ghur. He strengthened his position by political matrimonial alliances. He was a pious Muslim and his devotion to Islam is known by the two mosques, Quwwat-ud-Islam and Arhai Din K1! Jlzonpara which he built at Delhi and Ajmer respectively. He also began the construction of the celebrated Qutb Minar. He was known as laklz bak/zslz or ‘giver of lakhs’. He dieu in 1210, from the effects of a fall from his horse while playing polo.
ILTUTMISH (1210-1236) The full name of I1tutmish was Shams-ud-din Iltutmish. He was Aibak’s son~in-Iaw. He faced the chal1enge of Qutb-ud-din Aibak’s incompetent son, Aram Shah, (though it has been contended that Aibak had no son), and defeated him in 1211 and made himself secure as the Sultan. On his accession to the throne he had to face many difficulties. But I1tutmish proved himself equal to the situation. One by one he defeated all rivals, and was honoured with the patent of investiture from the Caliph of Baghdad in 1229. It was iri the reign of I1tutmish that Chengiz Khan, the Mongol leader, threatened to attack the infant empire. But I1tutmish overcame the situation by refusing to give any shelter to the Khwarizm ruler, Jalal-ud-din whose empire had been attacked by Chi Khan. Before his death he had consolidated his empirE provided it witt> a compact monarchy. To his mi1 abilities he addc~ a fine taste of arts and letters completed the structure of the famous Qutb Minar ~ 1232), in honour ~.f the famous saint, Khwaja Qutb-u( Bakhtiyar Kaki. He was the first ruler to adopt a: monetary standard the silver ‘tanka’, the ancestor d modem rupee. He further organised the iqtas, the! administration and the army, which was now cent recruited and paid.
RAZIYA SULTAN (1236-1240) I1tutmish nomii his daughter, Ra… :., as his successor but the nobles 0 court disregarded his wishes and placed his son, RukI din Firoz Shah, on the throne. The new ruler was tl! worthless ar .\..IS soon set aside in favour of Ri Begum. She a:>sumed the title of Sultan.
She revised the and reformed the abuses of the government. But not could reconcile t. .e turbulent Turki chiefs of the cou the rule of .~ M(‘. ‘in. During the reign of I1tutmish leading Turks had formed into a ‘college of forty’. Raz firmness and dE”dre to exercise power directly did please these nobles. Also, she offended the nobles b} preference for all Abyssinian slave named Jamal-ul Yakut, who ~’as iven the important office of superil dent of the st.tt-k -listorians, however, do not believe t was any ptrsona intimacy between Raziya and Yi Raziya was the c ily woman who ever sat on the th of Delhi. She was murdered in 1240 near Kaithal.
GHIYAS-lJD-UIN BALBAN (1286-1287) Court trigue continued till Balban finally ascended the tlu However, from 1246 onwards, Balban began to domi Delhi, first as one of the Clzahalgani Turks, and gradually rising t.J the post of Lord Chamberlain. M \’vhile, a line of successors-Bahram Shah, Masud, Nasir-ud-din Ma.1:~ud (in 1246) along with vice-regents.
The KHALJI DYNASTY (1290-1320)
JALAL-UD-DIN KHALJI (1290-1296)
ALA-UD-DIN KHALJI (1296-1316)